Text Box: Horace Mann Elementary School, Mexico City, Mexico (2007)
(Photo by V. Powell)

Horacio Mann Primary School., Mexico City, Mexico
þ A Paradigm Shift in Test Scoring!




Education and Assessment

Pages on Improvement of Educational Practice

(The Multinomial Project)

James (Jay) C. Powell, Ph.D. and others

·       Educational Terminology

·       Excepts from Writings; Models

·       Quotes

·       Related Research, Mathematics and Computer Science, CSU-EastBay

·       Fixing Education (June, 2009)


Are you concerned with “No Child Left Behind?”


Presentations and Publications, James C. Powell, Ph.D.

·        Jay Powell and Allan P. Clapp, Robert Morris University, Pittsburgh, USA. “Comparing Response Spectrum Analysis Interpretation (RSAI) of test results with Item Response Theory (IRT) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) using the same test data,” July 24, 2009. http://www.thepsychometricscentre.com/page/211/developing-scales-41.htm

·        James C. Powell, “Testing as Feedback; Applying and Interpreting Response Spectrum Analysis and Interpretation (RSAI) ,” Presentation, IADIS-CELDA Conference in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, October 13, 2008; see http://www.celda-conf.org/

·        James C. Powell: “Observing Learning Using All Answers: A Commentary on Test-Scoring Practices,” Presentation for the 73rd Meeting of the Psychometric Society (IMPS 2008, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH), July 1, 2008. See: http://www.psychometrika.org/meeting/2008/program.pdf

·        Powell, J. C. "Multinomial Analysis and its Applications in Health Care Education and Research," Second WorldVistA Education Seminar, RMU, Moon Township, PA, May 2008. See http://worldvista.org/Conferences/2nd-worldvista-education-seminar-agenda

·        Powell VJH, Johnson RS, Davis CT, Turchek JC, Powell JC, “Designing Hands-on Network Instruction Using Virtualization,” Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany, Proceedings of CELDA 2008, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany, October 2008, eds: Kinshuk DG, Sampson J, Spector M, Isaías P, and Ifenthaler D, pp. 103-112. Available online for IADIS members at http://www.iadis.net/dl/Search_list_open.asp?code=544

·        Powell, J. C. and Shklov, N. (1992) Obtaining information about learners’ thinking strategies from wrong answers on multiple-choice tests, The Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 847-865.

·        regarding Jay Powell’s presentation at the Psychometric Society 54th Annual Meeting July 6–9, 1989, please see: http://www.springerlink.com/content/87264610018m6518/

·        Powell, J. C. and Miki, H. (1985) Answer anomalies, how serious? Paper presented to the Psychometric Society 50th Anniversary Meeting, Nashville, TN.

·        regarding Jay Powell’s and Norm Shklov’s presentation at the Joint meeting of the Classification Society and the Psychometric Society June 25–27, 1984 University of California Santa Barbara, California, please see: http://www.springerlink.com/content/m503140064816516/

·        Powell, J. C. (1977) The developmental sequence of cognition as revealed by wrong answers, Alberta Journal of Educational Research XXIII (1) 43 – 51. Table 2 is reproduced with slight modification from page 46.

·       Powell, J. C. (1968) The interpretation of wrong answers from a multiple-choice test, Educational and Psychological Measurement 28, 403 – 412.

About Dr. Norm Shklov, Honorary Member of the Statistical Society of Canada (Société Statistique du Canada) and Founding Member of the Windsor University Retirees Association, see http://math.usask.ca/aboutmath/details.html and http://www.ssc.ca/documents/SSCarticle14(1).pdf and http://www.ssc.ca/main/about/awards_e.html


BETE Unit in computation: Beginning State, Elapsed Time, End State.


Dr. Jay C. Powell, retired from the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, subsequently taught part time in the School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, at Robert Morris University, Moon Township, PA (2007-2008).


For e-mail contact, please write to powellj at rmu dot edu .

For postal mail contact, please write to Dr. Jay C. Powell, P.O. Box 12833, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 USA


Watch this page!

Updated March 2, 2013